Tenses indicate time. We need to convey when a verb takes place – if it happened in the past, it is going on in the present or it will happen in the future. (काल समय का संकेत देते हैं। हमें यह बताना होगा कि कोई क्रिया कब घटित होती है – यदि यह अतीत में घटित हुई है, तो यह वर्तमान में चल रही है या यह भविष्य में घटित होगी।)

There are three main tensens: i) Past, ii) Present, iii)Future these are each further divided into simple, continuous, perfect and perfect continuous forms to give more meaning.  (तीन मुख्य काल हैं: i) अतीत, ii) वर्तमान, iii) भविष्य, इनमें से प्रत्येक को अधिक अर्थ देने के लिए सरल, निरंतर, पूर्ण और पूर्ण निरंतर रूपों में विभाजित किया गया है।)

They can be summarized in the table below 

Tense Simple Continuous PerfectPerfect continuous 
Present Habit, regular actions or facts.
Format: Subject + verb/(v5) + object 
Ongoing activity 
Form: Subject + is/am/are + (v4) + Object
Recently completed
Form: Sub + has/have + (v2) + Object 
An action that started in the past but continues in the present 
Form: Sub + has/have + been +v4 + obj
PastAction took place in the past. 
Format: Subject + v2  + object
Ongoing activity in the past
Format: Subject  + was/were + v4 + obj.
Action completed before another action in the past
Format: Subject + had + v2 + object 
Action that had been going on in the past but not anymore
Format:Sub + had + been  + v4 + obj. 
Future Action that will occur in the future
Format: Subject + will + v1 + object
Ongoing actions in the future 
Format: Sub + will be + v4 + Object 
An action that will be completed in the future 
Format: Sub + will have + v2 + object 
An action that will go on into the future.
Example: Sub + will have been + v4 + object
TenseSimpleContinuous (Progressive)PerfectPerfect Continuous
PresentShe plays the piano.They are studying for the exam.I have visited that museum before.I have been reading this book for hours.
PastHe walked to the store.They were playing soccer when it rained.By the time I arrived, they had left.I had been working on the project for months.
FutureWe will go to the beach.I will be studying at 9 PM tomorrow.By the time you arrive, I will have finished my work.By this time next year, I will have been working here for a decade.

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